The British Royal Navy scrambled to shadow three Chinese warships passing through UK waters heading to war games with Russia in the Baltic Sea.
The Chinese flotilla had been conducting exercises in the Mediterranean, before moving round Europe.
On entering the North Sea, Dutch vessels escorted them further on their journey.
Beijing’s ships will join a few Russian ones to take part in joint exercises on Friday.
One of the main challenges faced by Russia is the “strive of a number of states, mainly the US and its allies, for domination in the World Ocean, including the Arctic region, as well as for establishing overwhelming superiority of their naval forces,”according to “The fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of naval activities for the period up to 2030,” as ratified by a Decree of the President of Russia on Thursday.
Other challenges listed in the document include: a surge in piracy, terrorism, poaching and other illicit activities in the world’s oceans; the growing numbers of countries possessing a capable battle fleet; development of missile and nuclear weapons; and the desire of certain countries to limit Russia’s access to vital resources and naval routes.
“Negative changes” in the international situation, the mission of certain counties to control fossil resources, piracy, exploiting volatile situations in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan; as well as a number of South Asian and African countries, constitute the need for a Russian naval presence in the “strategically crucial and other regions of the World Ocean,” according to the document.
Russia’s new doctrine highlighted the increasing role of the naval forces in the 21st century, as the fleets “can change the course of a military confrontation and an outcome of a war.”
“This is proved by the US concept of a ‘global strike,’ which represents a new challenge to international security and directly threatens the military security of the Russian Federation. An important role in the implementation of this concept is assigned to the naval forces,” the document reads.
“During a military conflict escalation,[a] show of readiness and resolve to use force, including non-strategic nuclear weaponry is an efficient deterrence factor,” the doctrine reads.
Apart from nuclear weapons, the Russian fleet relies on high-precision weaponry, which enables it to cripple strategic sites and other vital objects of a potential enemy, therefore preventing a full-blown war, the doctrine emphasized.