Addiction is common in the US, more than people realize.
There are approximately 22-M people in the United States over the age of 12 with an addiction, according to The National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
Almost 80% of individuals who struggle from a substance abuse disorder in Y 2014 also struggled with an alcohol use disorder. And a shocking report recently published by the National Safety Council says that Americans are more likely to die of an opioid overdose than in an automobile crash.
“Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems,” said Dr. David Nutt, a British psychiatrist who set out to find which are the most addictive and dangerous drugs. His purpose was to pave the pathway for more effective ways to develop drug policies.
In a study published in the Lancet, Dr. Nutt and his colleagues rated the addictiveness and harmfulness of popular drugs, based on how pleasurable a substance was, how much psychological dependence it induced, and how physically dependent it made its users.
Here, according to the data are the Top 5, as follows:
- Heroin. Heroin, a pain killer and opioid, as The most addictive drug. Heroin is an opiate that raises the dopamine levels in the brain’s reward system by up to 200% in experiments using animals. Heroin is not only the most addictive drug, it’s the most dangerous because the dose that can kill is only 5X greater than a dose for getting high.
- Cocaine. Cocaine causes dopamine levels to rise more than 3X the normal level. It’s estimated that between 14 and 20-M people use cocaine.
- Nicotine. The experts ranked nicotine, the main ingredient of tobacco as the third most addictive substance. More than 67% of Americans who tried smoking reported becoming dependent.
- Barbiturates. Also called downers, these are a class of drugs that were initially prescribed to treat anxiety and to induce sleep. At low doses, barbiturates cause euphoria, but a higher level they can suppress breathing and cause death.
- Alcohol. In laboratory experiments it raised the dopamine level in the brain’s reward system by 40 to 360% and the more alcohol the animals drank, the higher the dopamine levels soared. The WHO estimates that more than 2-B people used alcohol in Y 2002 and more than 3-M people died in Y 2012 due to its damaging effects on the body.
Other dangerously addictive drugs according to Dr. Nutt’s research include street methadone, a synthetic opioid commonly used as a substitute for treating heroin patients; ketamine, a hallucinogenic drug sometimes used in pain management and depression; benzodiazepines used to treat anxiety and insomnia; and amphetamines, psychostimulants to fight fatigue and suppress hunger.
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